Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to methods used to inspect or measure the properties, structure, or condition of materials or systems without causing damage.

  1. Ultrasonic Testing (UT): Ultrasonic testing uses high-frequency sound waves to detect imperfections or changes in properties within materials. It can also measure thickness and find changes in material properties. It’s commonly used in industries like aerospace, automotive, and manufacturing.
  2. Radiographic Testing (RT): In radiographic testing, X-rays or gamma rays are used to view the internal structure of a component. The technique is very useful for detecting internal flaws of materials. It is widely used in industries such as oil & gas, power generation, manufacturing, and construction.
  3. Magnetic Particle Testing (MPT): This method is used to find surface and near-surface defects in ferromagnetic materials. The test object is magnetized, and iron particles are applied to it. These particles will gather at places where the magnetic field is disrupted, indicating a flaw.
  4. Liquid Penetrant Testing (LPT): Also known as Dye Penetrant Inspection (DPI) or Penetrant Testing (PT), this method is used to detect cracks and surface defects in non-porous materials. A liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of the component and left to seep into any flaws. The excess is then removed and a developer is applied to draw out the penetrant from any defects, leaving a visible indication.
  5. Eddy Current Testing (ECT): This test uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws in conductive materials. A coil carrying current is placed close to the component, creating eddy currents. These currents are disturbed by flaws in the material, which can be detected and measured.

Note: The selection of a testing method can depend on a variety of factors, including the material being tested, the type of defects that are expected, the depth at which the defects may occur, and regulatory or industry requirements.